The indigenous peoples of the Pacific have, according to
European tradition, been divided into a number of cultural
areas based in part on superficial racial divisions:
Australia (Aboriginal), Melanesia ('the islands of the
black'), Micronesia ('the small islands') and Polynesia ('
the many Islands'). In Oceania, the Aborigines, as well as
the people of New Guinea and some of the Melanesian islands,
constitute the oldest population dating back over 40,000
years. A later Austronesian immigration from Southeast Asia
has from ca. 3000 BC populated the rest of Melanesia,
Micronesia and Polynesia.
Abbreviationfinder, Australia is a country known worldwide for its natural
beauty, for its economic development and for the quality of
life of the population (currently it has the fourth highest
Human Development Index on the planet). However, little is
said about the history of the first inhabitants of
Australian territory, the Aborigines.
Aborigines are the native population of Australia,
inhabiting most of the Australian territory, totaling
approximately 750,000 individuals, subdivided into 500
groups and with about 300 different dialects. These groups
had distinct lifestyles and cultural and religious
traditions in each region.
With the arrival of the English colonists in 1758, the
massacres of the Aboriginal communities began. English
soldiers visited the villages pretending to be friendly,
offering gifts. However, other soldiers poisoned the
Aborigines' water and food with arsenic; several people,
including children, died as a result of the poisoning.
English soldiers destroyed places considered sacred by
the Aborigines. They also offered alcohol to the local
population, and took advantage of the state of drunkenness
to instigate confrontations between the different villages,
causing them to annihilate themselves.
After Australian independence was proclaimed, Aborigines
began to suffer from discrimination against the population
of their own country. Part of the Australian population
considered Aborigines to be part of the fauna and flora,
with no respect for these individuals.
Among the various persecutions suffered by this
community, "The Stolen Generations" stands out, an attempt
at "ethnic cleansing". Men, at the behest of the government,
invaded the tribes and kidnapped children, including babies;
many were taken from their families, little is known about
their true whereabouts.
Aborigines currently make up only 1% of the Australian
population. Some live in desert villages, others live in
peripheral neighborhoods in large cities. Most do not get
formal employment and receive government assistance. Some
get contributions from the population, playing on the city
streets the didgeridoo, a wooden instrument that produces a
loud sound similar to a ship's whistle. It is common to find
drunken Aborigines in the city, and often involved in
confrontations with the police.
In order to minimize this sad story, the Australian
government is developing anti-discrimination policies, and
preserving the remaining Aboriginal tribes, preserving the
traditions of these people.
Marshall Islands is a republic in Oceania, in the
Micronesia Island region of the Pacific. The Marshall
Islands are entirely north of the equator and slightly west
of the international date line. The location is about midway
between Hawaii and Australia. The capital is Majuro (Dalap-Uliga-Darrit).
The country consists of 29 atolls and 5 isolated coral
islands distributed over two parallel atoll chains over a
sea area of about 1.9 million square kilometers. The
Republic borders in the sea to Micronesia in the west, Wake
Island in the north, Kiribati in the southeast and Nauru in
the south. Any sea level rise will hit the country hard.
Marshall Islands relies on financial assistance from, and
has close ties to, the United States. Among other things,
the United States is responsible for defense and military
The name Marshall Islands is after British naval captain
John Charles Marshall, who visited several of the islands in
1788. There was no collective name for the entire island
empire before colonization from the mid-1800s. Instead, the
individual atoll chains, Ralik (the western) and Ratak (the
eastern), were mentioned and felt belonging.
National anthem is 'Forever Marshall Islands'.
Geography and environment
Each atoll forms a collection of small islands around a
saltwater lagoon. The average height of the sea for the
whole country is 2.1 meters. The highest point, 10 meters
above sea level, is an unnamed place on Likiep. This
increase was probably the result of a powerful hurricane
sometime in the 1840s.
The climate is warm and humid. There is no rain or dry
time, but there is typically more rain from May to November.
During the period December to February, there is usually
extra strong trade winds, and therefore troubled sea in the
waters. The annual average temperature is 27–28 o
C. The annual rainfall is 500–800 millimeters in the north
and about 4000 millimeters in the south. Typhoons
occasionally appear in December-March. Extreme waves and
high tides can cause major damage. There is also a danger
that rising sea levels may render the atolls uninhabitable
before 2100. The Marshall Islands have therefore had a clear
voice in the global climate debate since 2010. Drinking
water is insufficienton the northern atolls and periodically
in the south. Most of the drinking water comes from
rainwater. On both Majuro and Kwajalein, both the lagoon and
reefs on the seaside are polluted by waste.
Kwajalein Atoll is considered the world's third largest
atoll, and has the world's largest inner lagoon of 839
60 percent of the land area has coconut trees and screw
palms; no endemic (native) plant species are known.
There are many species of algae and coral, and more than
250 species of fish and all 5 species of sea turtles;
There are 7 species of reptiles. 70 bird species have been
found; 15 of 31 species of seabirds nest. The only native
mammal is Polynesian rat. 27 whales are found in the sea.
A shark conservation area of 1 990 530 square kilometers
was established in 2011, which means that all forms of shark
fishing and trade in shark products are prohibited in this
People and society
In 2006, Micronesian Marshallese made up 92.1 percent of
the population, mixed Marshallese 5.9 percent and the other
2 percent of the population (The World Factbook). Others are
made up of Americans and Asians.
Twenty-four of the atolls and islands have a settlement.
About 75 percent of the population lives on the Majuro Atoll
and the island of Ebeye in the Kwajalein Atoll, which
constitute the country's urban population centers.
Urbanization is at 72.7 percent (2015)
Marshall Islands has religious freedom. Just over 90
percent of the population belongs to a Christian
congregation. The United Church of Christ has had more than
50 percent of its population as members in recent decades,
but both Mormonism and various Pentecostal churches have
grown strongly since the 1990s. Today, The Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints is the third largest
congregation, after the UCC and Assemblies of God.
Life expectancy at birth in 2015 is 75.13 years for women
and 70.67 years for men.
Official languages are Marshallese, which is a core
Micronesian language, and English.
State and politics
The Marshall Islands is a parliamentary republic freely
associated with the United States. Every four years, 33
senators are elected to the lower house of the two-chamber
Nitijela parliament. The president, who is both head of
state and prime minister, is elected by the senators. There
is no restriction on re-election. The government of 10
ministers is nominated by the president among members of
Nitijela and appointed by its chairman.
Marshall Islands is divided into 24 municipalities.
The United States is responsible for the Marshall Islands
defense and the right to military support at Kwajalein.
The Marshall Islands is a member of the United Nations
and several UN agencies, including the World Bank, and the
Pacific Islands Forum.
Economy and business
Agriculture, fishing and manu- facturing employ about
nine per cent of the population. Agriculture is limited by
small and poor cultivation land. The most important
agricultural product is coconuts, which both make important
contributions to households and are one of the few export
goods, often in the form of copra (dried coconut meat).
Otherwise, among other things, bread fruits, taro, bananas,
papaya, tomatoes and pandanus are grown. There is some pig
and poultry farming, but not commercial. Commercial fishing
of tuna, as well as lagoon fish, takes place in the local
fish markets. The country has significant revenues from the
sale of licenses to foreign fishing fleets.
The underdeveloped industry is limited to coconut
products (copra, oil), fish canning and the building
industry. Wreckage is the largest export source, while fish
products and copra are the largest export goods based on
local production. The construction industry plays a certain
role, but is mainly driven by labor migrants from Western
Oceania (especially the Philippines).
48 per cent of the workforce is employed in the public
sector, but the private sector employs 39 per cent. The rest
are mainly employed in non-governmental or international
Tourism is little developed.
An association agreement with the United States secures
US financial assistance, which accounts for a significant
portion of the gross domestic product. Through a
controversial agreement with local landowners, the United
States has the right to use parts of the Kwajalein Atoll as
a military base and test area for ballistic missiles.
Over the past decade, the Marshall Islands and Liberia
have alternated between being the world's second and third
largest ship registers through convenience flags.
Knowledge and culture
There is an eight-year compulsory school for children
aged six to fourteen. It is a four-year high school. The
College of the Marshall Islands is headquartered in Majuro
and the University of the South Pacific also has a branch
There are no daily newspapers. There is one national
weekly newspaper in Marshallese and English, The
Marshall Islands Journal, and one monthly newspaper on
Crafts and crafts play a major role both culturally and
economically, including with wicker baskets, mats and bags,
as well as boat building.
Speech art is a strong tradition in the Marshall Islands.