Bulgaria Religion and Languages

By | March 5, 2021

According to franciscogardening, Bulgaria is a country located in Southeast Europe, bordered by Romania, Serbia, North Macedonia, Greece and Turkey. With an area of 110,994 square kilometers, it has an estimated population of over 7 million people and its currency is the Bulgarian Lev (BGN). The climate in Bulgaria ranges from continental in the north to Mediterranean in the south with temperatures ranging from -3°C to 35°C throughout the year.

The main industries in Bulgaria are agriculture, manufacturing and services. Agriculture plays a key role as it provides food for both domestic consumption and export while manufacturing contributes significantly to their economy by providing goods for local markets and export. Services also have become increasingly important as they provide jobs for locals as well as foreign visitors. In addition, Bulgaria is known for its rich cultural heritage and vibrant cities such as Sofia which attract tourists from all over the world.


According to Countryaah, nearly 90 percent of the country’s residents can be classified as Bulgarians. The largest minority groups are Turks (800,000), who live mainly in the northeastern and southern parts of the country, and Roma (300,000).

The country has a population density of 63 residents per km2. The most densely populated is the Sofia basin with over 500 residents per km2. Around Plovdiv lives about 150 residents per km2. Slightly lower numbers can be found in the agricultural areas of the Danube in the north and Maritsa in the south. The mountain areas are sparsely populated. Since 1946, the urban population has increased from 25 to 74 percent. The largest cities are Sofia (1.2 million residents, 2017), Plovdiv (343,400) and Varna (335,200).


Official Language of Bulgaria

The official language is Bulgarian, which is the native language of 85% of the population. Major minority languages are Turkish, which is the mother tongue of 700,000 people (2007), and Romani, the mother tongue of an estimated 300,000 (2006). In practice, many Turks and Romans are bilingual. The Turks speak dialects that differ greatly from the standard language in Turkey. In the southwest there is a small minority who consider themselves Macedonians and consequently consider themselves speaking Macedonian (the Bulgarian dialects are gradually transitioning into Macedonian, and no sharp border exists).


After the Christianity of the twentieth and twentieth centuries was exterminated by the Slav conquest, Bulgaria was again Christianized in 865, when Prince Boris was baptized by missionaries from Constantinople. The population has since been predominantly Orthodox. The varied and varied church history also includes the Newmanic Bogomiles, connection to Rome, rebellion against the Ottoman conquerors and national opposition to Byzantium. In 1870, the church organized with Turkish help as an independent exarchate, which in 1945 was recognized by Constantinople. Through a new church law in 1949, the communist regime dissolved the link between state and church. In 1953, the exarchate was converted into a patriarchate based in Sofia. In the 1990s, a schism within the church has emerged for political reasons. The two factions now have their own patriarchy.

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The largest minority have been the Muslims (formerly 950,000), most Turks. Unified Catholics (with Byzantine liturgy), Protestants and Jews constitute minorities.

Bulgaria Population by Religion