According to Countryaah, in the 6th century, the Croatians immigrated from Belarus, an area that is now part of Ukraine, and settled in the valleys south of the Danube. From there they continued to the Adriatic Sea, where in 614 they conquered the heavily fortified Roman city of Salerno. After settling in the former Roman provinces of Panonia and Dalmatia, a period of independent Croatian development began.
The Croatian peasantry retained their original way of life, but in the 7th century the Croats converted to Christianity; the entire Nin region gathered under a diocese. Immediately thereafter, Croatians were allowed at religious ceremonies.
In the 8th century, the Croatian tribes were organized into larger units, and the two duchies of Panonia and Dalmatia were founded. After the peace settlement in 812 between the Franks and the Byzantines, the Panonia became subject to the Franks and Dalmatia became subject to the Byzans. Both duchies detached themselves in the 9th century and united at the end of the century in the first, independent Croatian kingdom.
Tomislav and his descendants had to defend themselves against the Bulgarian empire in Panonia and against Venice on the Dalmatian coast. Byzans assisted Stjepan Drzislav, 969-997, in the defense against Venice, thereby regaining the lost influence in the Adriatic. Petar Kresimir, 1058-1074, severed relations with Byzans and strengthened ties with the papacy. During this period, Croatia experienced its heyday.
Under Kresimir’s rule, the country remained divided into two camps: a Latin, who was in favor of the king, and a national opposition, with wide popular support. When Dimitrije Zvonimir, at the invitation of the Pope, tried to engage the kingdom in a war against the Turks, the opposition accused him of being the pope’s henchmen and he was assassinated in 1089. The subsequent civil war became the beginning of the fall of the kingdom.
Byzan’s captured Dalmatia; then Lazlo took the 1st. of Hungary Panonia and demanded the right to the Croatian throne. In 1094, Lazlo founded a diocese in Zagreb, which quickly became a religious powerhouse. Petar Svavic was declared king of Dalmatia, but the pope interpreted it as a rebellion and asked Kalmán of Hungary to knock it down. He invaded the country and Svavic died in 1097; he was the last king of Croatian blood.
After a protracted war, Kalmán in Pacta signed the convention with Croatian representatives. Only Bosnia, then part of the Croatian kingdom, refused to submit to a foreign ruler. From that point onwards through the next 800 years, Croatia was in alliance with Hungary. Dalmatia joined Venice in 1400, ruling the country for the following 4 centuries.
- Follow abbreviationfinder to see what is the meaning of HR in geography. It can stand for Croatia. Click this site to see other possible meanings of this acronym.
Following the defeat of the Croats and Hungarians in the wars against Krbavsko Polje in 1493, and against the Mohacs in 1526, the majority of Panonia and the central part of Hungary were conquered by the Turks.