Demographically, Cuba differs from other Latin American states in several ways. Family planning keeps birth rates low. The death rate is also low, which is related both to good health care and to the population’s age distribution.
According to Countryaah, 77 percent of the population live in cities. The rural scattered farms (bohíos) are increasingly being replaced by agricultural collectives and new urban settlements. Metropolitan growth has been kept under relative control, and the population is regionally well spread across the country. The population density is 102 residents per km2. The most densely populated are the metropolitan area of Havana (2.1 million residents, 2017) and the eastern part of the island with the country’s second largest city, Santiago de Cuba (433,000 residents).
Cuba’s original Native American population, the Arab-speaking Tao-Indians, who at the Spanish conquest of 80,000-10000,000, has now largely disappeared, although there are some Spanish-speaking relatively isolated mountain villages in eastern Cuba where the population sees themselves as descendants and managers of the taínokulturen. A large proportion of the population (according to some estimates up to one third) are of African descent; descendants of the slaves introduced by the Spaniards. They are divided into mulattos (24 percent) and blacks (10 percent). Nowadays, they are collectively called Afrocubans. During the early 1900s, a strong white (mainly Spanish) immigration took place, and today the population is just over 65 percent white (the 2002 census; foreign analysts, however, believe that the Afro-Cuban group today is the majority). The trend is toward increased racial integration, and mixed marriages are common, although Afrocubans testify to discrimination in Cuban society. A small proportion of the population, just under 1 percent, have Asian descent. Mainly these are Chinese people who started to move in as early as the 1840s and who have lived for generations in Cuba. Vietnamese and Koreans. In addition, there are small groups of Lebanese and Palestinians in the country. Significant Cuban diaspora populations are found in the USA and Spain, among others. but there are also later migrants of i.e. Vietnamese and Koreans. In addition, there are small groups of Lebanese and Palestinians in the country. Significant Cuban diaspora populations are found in the USA and Spain, among others. but there are also later migrants of i.e. Vietnamese and Koreans. In addition, there are small groups of Lebanese and Palestinians in the country. Significant Cuban diaspora populations are found in the USA and Spain, etc.
- AllCityPopulation: Find Cuba demographics including latest population, life expectancy, age structure, and urbanization.
The official language and mother tongue of the entire population is Spanish.
There are no reliable sources for the number of religious communities and the number of members there. Christianity, which today comprises an estimated 60 percent of Cubans, was established in 1512 by Spanish Dominican priests. The Catholic Church legitimized the extermination of the indigenous religions by the Spanish colonial power, as well as the murder of many indigenous people. However, Catholic priest Bartolomé de Las Casas, the Native American defender, actively resisted the violence. More than half of the Christian population today are Catholics.
Protestants’ share of the population is estimated at a few percent today. There are also small groups of Muslims, Orthodox Christians, Hindus and Baha’is. Many Cubans, perhaps as many as 80 percent, consult with religions such as Santería and Yoruba. Cubans turn to these for help in emergency events such as childbirth and illness.
Freedom of religion is enshrined in the current constitution, which is from 1974 with the addition in 1992. The constitution also states that Cuba has no state religion. All official beliefs are handled by a special state authority and regulated by laws. To operate in the country, religious organizations must apply for a permit, which can take a long time and is surrounded by stringent regulations.
In addition to two Catholic seminars and some ecumenical educational institutions, religious schools are banned in the country. However, several religious communities offer both religious education and courses in secular subjects after regular school hours and during the weekends, which is accepted by the government agencies. Similarly, it has become easier for churches and communities to recruit new members, to import religious material, to restore and build worship services, and to invite guests from abroad who will work in communities in various ways.
According to the government, December 25 is a national holiday. The government has also declared the Friday before Easter as a holiday to honor Pope Benedict XVI’s visit to the country in 2012. According to the government, however, these days have no religious content.