According to Countryaah, in the fall of 1945, the first normal parliamentary elections after 1939 were held. Social democracy declined very strongly with a loss of 18 seats. The DKP, which had only had 3 mandates before the war, went forward similarly and received 18 mandates. The figures reveal what opinion shift has taken place over the last 2 years with German occupation. In the trade union movement, too, there was strong progress for the Communists at the expense of the Social Democrats.
Thus, immediately after the war, the working class and the progressive forces were strong in the population, and the bourgeoisie provided economic and political concessions. Among other things. a new housing policy was introduced in which the state financed social housing through cheap loans (the Building Support Act of 1946). But the strength of the left was based first and foremost on external relations: the Soviet Union’s victory over Hitler-Germany and the political and moral prestige of the class-based resistance movement in the population. The activity of the working class increased from 1943 to that of 1946 topped off with large strikes and demonstrations.
However, the working class leadership team was not able to gather and exploit the activity in such a way that the working class acquired new and permanent rights. Social democracy quickly embarked on its traditional political line: to work for reforms within capitalism, and to enable and control the working class from above through professional and political organizations. The DKP was caught by the class co-operation line of the People’s Front policy; at the same time, the party – both in structure and leadership – remained a Stalinist and highly centralist party that left no decisions to its basis. A – quite spontaneous and quite confused – offensive of the working class in the first year after the war, continued into a balance of work-capital balance, broken from a civil counter-offensive from 1947-48. This had an impact on both economic policy, the labor market and – not least – foreign policy. Most of the regulations and distribution policy measures of the war were abolished. The labor market was actively supported by LO victim of a strong wave of rationalization. From 1948 Denmark slipped into the Cold War and in 1949 joined NATO. The traditional Danish neutrality policy was now finally abandoned, and while foreign policy in the 1930’s was designed taking into account Berlin, it was now being designed with Washington in mind.
During the same period, international trends towards decolonization also prevailed in Denmark’s relations with its colonies. Iceland had been a Danish colony, occupied by England at the start of World War II, and in 1944 declared itself independent. The Faroe Islands had been under Norwegian/Danish domination since 1380 and were also occupied by England in 1940, but were returned to Denmark after the war. In 1948, they gained a greater degree of autonomy, however, so that Denmark (the so-called “state community”) continued to determine security and foreign policy and was entitled to the resources in the underground. Greenland had been occupied by the United States during the war, and was also returned to Denmark after the war, but here in 1979 the colonial power only granted Denmark permission to go into autonomy. Before that, over a 30-year period, the Danish state practiced a modernization project that largely destroyed the traditional Greenlandic fishing culture (see Cultural Imperialism).
Already at the election in 1947 when a Social Democratic government replaced the Left government which was formed after the 1945 elections, DKP was halved in terms of voting. At the same time, the party lost most positions of strength it had won in the trade union movement, while the social democracy and the bourgeois parties were consolidated.
Copenhagen Municipality (Environment)
Copenhagen is today a fairly clean city, but this has not always been the case. From the Middle Ages and up to the mid-1800’s, ran the wastewater in the streets in open gutters. After a severe cholera epidemic in 1853, the separation of drinking water and wastewater was initiated. Remote supply of drinking water was established fairly quickly. The sewerage was slower. Even in the late 1930’s, latrines were driven out of the city in some places. The efforts since around 1970 with environmental legislation, large investments in treatment plants, control and not least the population’s own awareness has made the environmental conditions good.
The water supply is based almost exclusively on groundwater that is taken in from a large part of North and Central Zealand. The system also supplies several neighboring municipalities with drinking water. The wastewater is treated at the treatment plants Lynetten (at the northern tip of Refshaleøen) and Damhusåen (at Kalveboderne). The two plants also treat wastewater from seven neighboring municipalities, while Avedøre Kloakværk cleans other neighboring municipalities. The facilities, which previously only purified mechanically-biologically, were expanded in 1992-97 to also purify the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus. This means cleaner water in the Øresund and Kalveboderne.
The environmental control is responsible for environmental approvals, supervision and emergency preparedness and monitors the environmental condition of water, air and soil and with regard to noise. Air pollution is modest compared to many capitals due to good smoke purification and the extensive use of district heating, unleaded petrol and catalysts in cars. A large part of the wasteincinerated at Amagerforbrænding; the energy from this is utilized for power and heat production. Kalvebod Miljøcenter crushes construction waste, composts garden waste and biological treatment of oil-contaminated soil. A landfill is also located here. Copenhagen’s inner harbor has been heavily polluted, but thanks to the removal of harbor sludge, the cessation of ship traffic and the release of most of the wastewater, it is now so clean that a harbor bath has been established. Only after heavy rain will there be an overflow of wastewater in the harbor. In this case, the harbor bath is closed for short periods.
- Follow abbreviationfinder to see what is the meaning of DK in geography. It can stand for Denmark. Click this site to see other possible meanings of this acronym.
Copenhagen contains a number of nature areas, parks and lakes that give the city character. These include Tippen (in Kongens Enghave by Kalveboderne), where the green-spotted toad is found, Utterslev Mose with a unique bird life, the pure Damhussø and the inner lakes (Skt. Jørgens Sø, Peblinge- and Sortedamssøen) and Amager Fælled. In collaboration with organizations and companies, Copenhagen will market the city and the Øresund region as “Europe’s Environmental Capital” and thereby increase awareness of the many environment-based initiatives.