According to Countryaah, the area that is today Ecuador has been inhabited since at least 2,500 BCE The area played an important role as a border region between the various indigenous civilizations: Nazca. tiahuanaco-huari, chibcha and mexica. It is also believed that the people have been in contact with various Pacific people – Polynesians and Japanese – although this aspect is highly debated. But it is certain that in the 14th century the area was divided between different warring states and different language areas. In the early 15th century, the cara nation began under the leadership of the Shirithe dynasty to expand to the north and to the central parts of the Andean region. The Cara nation established a kingdom with Quito as its capital. It was the highest organization achieved by the people of what was then Ecuador, but it has not left behind written down historical sources. During the same period, the Inca empire and the Chimú nation – which developed in the coastal region of northern Peru – also began to penetrate.
In 1478, the peasant people of Ecuador were united under the leadership of the Inca Topa Yupanqui. In a few years, the northern part of Tahuantisuyu gained great economic importance and Quito became its commercial center, but the succession of rivalry between Quito resident Atahualpa and Cuszo resident Huáscar reduced the empire’s power (see history under Peru).
The Spanish conquistadores benefited from this split, and under the leadership of Sebastián de Benalcázar, Quito 1534 was conquered by the Spaniards. During the first half of the colonial period, the area was part of the Viceroy of Peru under the designation Audiencia de Quito.
The native population of the coastal areas was very sparse. The Spaniards therefore had only a very limited slave labor, and as the humid and hot climate was at the same time unhealthy for the Indians, the area remained sparsely populated. Somewhat similar was the case in the Andean region, where the American population was openly aggressive towards the occupying power and where only the missionaries ventured. The colony administration therefore more or less ruled over semi-autonomous indigenous peoples or administrative and religious centers such as Quito, Ambato and Cuenca. The production of raw cloth was therefore the only outward economic activity in the country.
Quito, Villa de San Francisco de Quito, capital of Ecuador; 2.24 million residents (2011). Quito is almost 3000 meters above sea level on a terrace at the foot of Pichincha volcano; From here you have a view of the valley in the Andes, for which Quito is the center city. From the top of Cerro Pane, both the city and the characteristic Ecuadorian Andean landscape can be observed.
Quito is South America’s oldest capital with roots from before the Inca era. There are not many remnants of this past when the city burned out during the Spanish conquest. However, they immediately rebuilt the city, which has a distinctive colonial feel with many well-preserved historic buildings.
The somewhat remote location of the city has meant that it did not grow significantly before the advent of modern means of transport. When urban growth finally got underway, a whole new center was built with high-rise buildings next to the old town and with business areas by the new traffic links.
The city’s old town was preserved in 1978 and listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Quito, along with the port city of Guayaquil, is one of Ecuador’s industrial centers and produces textiles and consumables in particular.
The town is close to the equator and up there in the mountains a temperate climate with constant temperatures throughout the year, but with hot days and cold nights. An increasing number of tourists visit the city.
The city was the center of the kingdom of Quito until the Incas conquered the area in 1487. It was then one of the most important cities of the Incarct, and at times rivaled by the capital, Cuzco.
In 1534, Quito was conquered by the Spanish conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar (c. 1495-1551); on the ruins of the Native American city he founded San Francisco de Quito, which became the administrative center of the province of Quito.
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The province declared independence from Spain in 1809, but independence was not won until 1822. From independence to the present day, Quito, where conservative landlords have traditionally stood strong, rivaled politically and economically with Guayaquil, where the liberals have had their power base.