In 2011, the first census was carried out since 1993. According to Countryaah, the population was about 20 percent less than previously used estimates and amounted to about 1.8 million. Of this, approximately 72,500 lived in the municipalities in northern Kosovo where Serbs are in the majority. These have a high degree of self-determination and are administered from Serbia in terms of, for example, healthcare and teaching.
The proportion of young people is larger than in other countries in Europe and so is the family size. On average, a household comprises close to six people.
The ethnic composition of the population has changed over several periods over the past twenty-five years. In the 1990s, conditions deteriorated radically for Kosovo Albanians and many moved abroad, while Serbs moved into Kosovo. After the end of the war in 1999, some Albanians returned, while many Kosovo Serbs moved out. The 2011 census showed that 88 percent of the population were Kosovo Albanians while 7 percent were Kosovo Serbs. Bosnians and Gorans, who are Muslims who speak Slavic languages, made up 2 percent. In addition, Turks and Romans, Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians, the latter together often referred to as RAE.
In 2015, 62 percent of the population lived in rural areas, the second highest proportion of all European states. In 2012, the capital Pristina had 205 100 residents, Prizren 181 800 and Gjilan 91 400.
In Kosovo, Albanian and Serbian are official languages. Serbs, however, are mainly used in the Serbian enclaves. At the local level Turkish, Bosnian and Romani can also be used.
Prishtina, (Prishtinë, Pristina, serb. Priština), capital of Kosovo; approximately 500,000 inbound (2008); preferably Kosovo Albanians. In 1991, the population was 155,500 and consisted of an Albanian majority and a Serbian, Montenegrin and Turkish minority as well as some Roma. In 1970, Prishtina gained a university which became one of Yugoslavia’s largest and had more Albanian students than the University of Tirana in Albania. After Kosovo’s autonomy was revoked and it was decided that all education should be in Serbo-Croatian, in 1991 the Albanians formed an unofficial alternative university. This was one of the causes of the crisis that triggered NATO bombings in spring-summer 1999. During the conflict, a large part of the Albanian population fled. It returned after the bombings, which forced many Kosovo Serbs to be displaced or emigrated.
Priština has a modern center surrounded by oriental neighborhoods with small stalls, slums and industry. Before the bombing, the city had the textile, food and fertilizer industry, ceramic industry and handicraft. Outside the city lies the Serbian Orthodox monastery Gračanica, founded by Milutin in 1321.
In the Serbian medieval state, Prishtina was an important city on the trade route between Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and the East. The city was during the Ottoman Empire 1389-1912, then under Serbia and in 1918 under Yugoslavia; at the 2008 Kosovo Declaration of Independence, Prishtina became the capital of the new state.