Since the Second World War, Luxembourg’s population has increased by just over a third. The surplus of birth is minimal, and population growth is mainly through immigration surplus. About 35 percent of the residents are foreign nationals; Portuguese, Italian, French and Belgian were the largest groups. In return, almost as many Luxembourg citizens live abroad. Luxembourg is traditionally a meeting place between German and French. The average population density is 235 residents per km2 and about 90 percent of the population lives in cities. 75 percent of the population lives in the southern third of the country. Here are the largest cities: Luxembourg (119,200 residents, 2019) and Esch-sur-Alzette (35,400).
According to Countryaah, official languages are French, German and Luxembourgish (Luxembourgish), the dominant spoken language, originally a German (Franconian) dialect. French is the legal language and the traditional administrative language. German dominates in cultural life (church, newspapers and literature).
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Christianity was brought to Luxembourg by the Anglo-Saxon monk Willibrord in the late 600s; his grave in Echternach is a widely visited pilgrimage site. About 90% of Luxembourg’s population is Roman Catholics. The Protestant church (a union of Lutherans and reformers with about 4,000 members) has German mark.
LUXEMBOURG. – Population. – Luxembourg, as of August 20, 1945, had a population of 281,572. (109 sq km), with a 5% decrease compared to the 1935 census. All the major inhabited centers (Esch-Alzette, Differdingen, Düdelingen, Petingen) also suffer more or less population losses; the capital, Luxembourg, instead increased from 57,996 to 59,013 residents in the period 1935-45.
Economic conditions. – Compared with the pre-war period, the arable land area has slightly decreased (87 thousand ha. In 1946) and, consequently, the harvests (the basic one of potatoes halved, which gave only 1.1 million q. In the 1945). On the other hand, industrial activity remained high, indeed reinvigorated. Luxembourg is currently in fourth place among the European countries for the production of steel (1.3 million tons in 1946).
Economic union. – Luxembourg acceded to the London Convention of 5 September 1944 (ratified in July 1947 and in force since 1 January 1948) for the customs union with Belgium and Holland (Nederland).
Finance. – The Grand Duchy, despite having suffered, due to the war and the German occupation, damages estimated at about 26 billion francs, was able to restore, just three years after its liberation, the equilibrium in its internal finances and make significant progress in ” reconstruction work thanks to the prompt application of extraordinary taxes on capital, the issuance of loans on the domestic market, the granting, in August 1947, of a loan of 12 million dollars by the International Bank, the use of released assets abroad and liquidation of German investments in the country. The improvement of the situation is proven by the following figures:
With the liberation – Luxembourg left the German currency territory in which it was incorporated – the old circulation was restored on a parity basis between the Belgian and Luxembourg francs and on an exchange ratio of 176.625 francs for one pound and 43, 96 francs for one dollar. Consequently, Luxembourg has communicated to the International Monetary Fund – in which it holds a share of 10 million dollars – the same gold parity of the Belgian franc of 0.0202765 fine grams. Currency policy is regulated by mutual agreement with Belgium, through the Belgian-Luxembourg exchange institute, created in October 1944.