According to Countryaah, the area that today constitutes Monaco has been inhabited since the Stone Age. The Monaco cliff that rises over the Mediterranean has throughout history been the abode of many primitive tribes. The Ligurians were the first permanent residents of the area’s mountains and had the reputation of being used to working in harsh conditions. The Monaco coast and harbor were the way to the sea for one of these ligurian people: Oratelli de Peille.
The area was later occupied by Phoenicians, Greeks, Cartensians and from the late 2nd century BCE. of the Romans. The area was made part of the province of the Maritime Alps. During the occupation, the Romans in Turbie Augustus built the trophy celebrating his military triumphs. During the same period, Phoenician and Cartesian sailors brought prosperity to the area. In the 1st century AD. Monaco was annexed by Marseilles and Christian.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was regularly occupied by various peoples. In the 7th century it became part of Lombardy and a hundred years later became part of the kingdom of Arles. It came under Islamic rule when the Saracens invaded France. After the Duke of Provence in the 10th century defeated the Saracens, the coast gradually became more inhabited.
In 1191, Monaco was transferred to Genoa as a colony. On January 8, 1297, the Grimaldi family conquered the fortress in Monaco and laid the stones for what is still the Duke’s Palace to this day. The Grimaldians originated in Genoa, but had gone into exile. Their chief, Fulco del Castello, was given the reign of Henri VI over the Monaco Rock and the lands surrounding it. In addition, in order to attract a more stable population, he was granted a concession on the land and the right to print taxes. From then on, Monaco became an important point of contention among the two major parties in Genoa: the Gibelians who supported the ruler and the Güelfos who supported the pope and were allies with Grimaldi.
In 1331, Monaco was recaptured by Carlos I, who at the same time incorporated the Spinola family’s estates as well as the towns of Menton and Roquebrune. Carlos I is considered by many to be the true founder of the duchy and its first ruler. Carlos died in 1357 and his son, Rainer II, fought against Genoa until the French King and the Duke of Saboya in 1489 recognized Monaco’s independence.
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In 1612, Honorato II gave himself the title of Duke of Monaco. After 10 years of negotiations, Honorato II and Luis XIII of France signed in September 1641 Peroné the Treaty recognizing Monaco’s independence. At the same time, France guarantees to protect the duchy, and the same year the Spaniards are thrown out of Monaco.
During the French Revolution, the duchy was annexed by France. With the Vienna Treaty, it is a protectorate in 1815-60 and regains its independence in 1861. Prince Charles III of Monaco decides to attract international higher citizenship in order to contribute to the country’s economic development and therefore in 1863 opens the first casino. In 1865 he opened the Monte-Carlo Casino. Karl III rules the country in 1856-89, where his son Albert I takes power. This one draws up the country’s first constitution in 1911.
In 1918, a treaty was concluded that clarified France’s protection of Monaco. It stated that the Principality was politically, militarily and economically allied with France.
A new constitution of 1962 abolished the death penalty, introduced female suffrage and created a Supreme Court to protect fundamental freedoms.