According to franciscogardening, Montenegro is a small country located in the Balkans region of Europe. It has a population of approximately 622,000 people and covers an area of 13,812 square kilometers. The capital city is Podgorica, which is also the largest city in the country. The official language of Montenegro is Montenegrin but other languages such as Serbian and Albanian are also spoken. Montenegro has a long history as an independent state with strong ties to Serbia and other former Yugoslav countries. Its economy relies mainly on tourism, minerals, agriculture, and services. With a GDP of $7 billion USD in 2020, Montenegro remains one of the poorest countries in Europe.
During the 1990s, the native population of Montenegro declined while hundreds of thousands of refugees came from neighboring areas; In 1999, there were 160,000 refugees in Montenegro. According to Countryaah, most of them have returned to their home countries, while some have been integrated into the new country. During the 1999 Kosovo War and the years that followed, refugees came from there. In 2011, it was estimated that there were 24,000 refugees in Montenegro, most of whom came from Kosovo during the 1990s.
In the 2011 census, Montenegro had 620,000 residents, almost exactly as many as in the previous census (2003). The relocations have meant that the country has in recent years had a larger relocation than immigration, but this has been offset by the fact that Montenegro has had a natural increase in population. The country thus differs from some other countries in southeastern Europe, where the number of deaths exceeds the number of births annually. For population statistics, see country facts.
The ethnic composition of the population has changed significantly since the mid-20th century. Around 1950, more than 90 percent were integrals, at the 2011 census only 45 percent. Their share decreased mainly in the 1970s and 1990s. The Montegrines live mainly in the southern and central parts of the country. In 1950, less than 2 percent of the residents were Serbs. Their share increased gradually and tripled during the 1990s. Now they are close to 29 percent. The Albanians’ share has remained unchanged throughout the period, about 5 percent. In recent years, Bosnians havecounted as a separate category. In 2011, they made up 9 percent of the population of Montenegro, and they live in the country’s easternmost parts. The Romans then made up 1 percent, an equal share of the Croats. Ethnic affiliation data was missing for 7.5 percent and among them there are likely to be many refugees, including Roma. The debate in connection with the 2011 census showed that the ethnic data is difficult to interpret. No less than 43 per cent of the population indicated that they spoke Serbian while only 37 percent spoke Montenegrin.
In 2019, 67 percent of the population lived in cities, and the proportion is increasing but very slowly. The largest among them is Podgorica with 195,700 residents (2017), followed by Nikšić (70,600) and Bijelo Polje (44,000).
In Montenegro, štokavian dialects are spoken by the South Slavic language, formerly called Serbo-Croatian or Croatian Serbian and today sometimes Central South Slavic. Serbo-Croatian has four main dialects: štokaviska, čakaviska, kaykaviska and torlakic.
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The official language is Montenegrin, which, like the Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian standard languages, is based on štokavian dialects. Languages recognized as regional or minority languages according to the Council of Europe’s language statute are Albanian and Romani. The Montenegrin language paragraph states that in addition to Montenegrin, Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian can also be used officially.
The Turkish conquest, however, did not bend the minds of the population, nor did it completely break up that political unity which, especially in the century. XV had been forming. The Turks, victorious, occupy and can maintain themselves only in the lower part of Montenegro. The populations, broken at any discomfort, very practical in the mountains, intolerant of the Turkish yoke, withdraw to the mountainous areas and particularly to the inaccessible and inaccessible region of the Brda (mountains) where, forbidding the Turks any access and any exercise of dominion, they maintain themselves, at the cost of continuous blood sacrifices, fully independent. For almost two centuries Montenegrins live almost cut off from history, patriarchally organized into pleme (tribe) at the head of which are vojvode (commanders), recognizing only the spiritual dependence on Cettigne’s vladika. The recovery of Christianity against the Turks makes them part of history, once again on the side of Venice. In 1684 Austria, Poland, Venice and the Holy See formed the Holy League. The tribes of Montenegro rise up and proclaim the sovereignty of Venice. The troops of the republic entered Cettigne in 1688. The war, however, ends without Venice being able, in the Treaty of Carlovitz (1699), to ensure that Montenegrin aspirations are satisfied. The vladikas of the Petrović-Niegoš house are responsible for having fully realized them.