The former center of the Roman Empire and today’s capital of Italy lies on the Tiber and has 2.6 million residents. It is the political and cultural center of the country and at the same time the hub of rail and air traffic. With its historical and cultural attractions, Rome is one of the most visited cities in the world. The sovereign state of Vatican City with the seat of the Pope, the supreme representative of the Catholic Church, lies within its walls as an enclave.
Location and importance
Rome, the capital of Italy, is located in the western center of the country on the Tiber, only 20 km from the coast. Rome has about 2.76 million residents. The “Eternal City” is the seat of government, parliament and the Pope, who resides in Vatican City.
Rome is the political and cultural center of Italy. There are two state universities, the oldest of which was founded in 1303, a private university and several colleges, as well as academies and institutes. Rome is also the seat of numerous international authorities, including the FAO, the UN’s specialized agency for food and agriculture. The National Library, the Vatican Library and the Bibliotheca Hertziana are among the best-stocked libraries in the world. Many Roman museums are also internationally recognized.
Economy and Transport
According to abbreviationfinder, Rome is one of the most important business locations in Italy:
- The most important branches of industry are mechanical engineering, the graphic industry and the chemical, electronic, clothing and food industries.
- In addition, Rome is Italy’s most important media location with publishers and film studios as well as a fashion center of global standing and the venue for many international trade fairs.
- Rome is Italy’s central transport hub for rail and air transport. There are two airports including the Leonardo da Vinci International Airport in Fiumicino. Besides Civitavecchia, Fiumicino and Anzio also serve as seaports.
History and culture
Rome is one of the most famous and most visited cities in the world. In ancient times it was the capital of the Roman Empire and from the 3rd century the center of Greco-Roman culture. The Colosseum, the largest amphitheater of antiquity, several triumphal arches of Roman emperors and the Castel Sant’Angelo, the tomb of Emperor HADRIAN (76-138), have been preserved from this period.
Rome is built on hills, including the seven classic ones:
- Caelius and
The Aurelian Wall still surrounds the city center with the Roman Forum, Capitol, tombs and the great thermal baths.
Rome is considered to be one of the cradles of Christianity.
Important early Christian monuments are the basilicas and the catacombs. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Rome also lost its importance.
It was not until the early Middle Ages, around 800 AD, that Rome rose to become a metropolis again, especially when the city became the coronation site of the Frankish and later the German emperors by the then all-powerful Pope.
In the 14th century Rome began a phase of renovation and new construction. With the participation of the most famous artists of their time such as BRAMANTE, MICHELANGELO, RAFFAEL and BERNINI, magnificent church buildings, fountains and streets were created. The baroque Spanish Steps are one of the most famous attractions for Romans and tourists.
Under the fascist dictator MUSSOLINI, the city was greatly expanded and crossed the ancient borders for the first time. Rome survived World War II without any significant damage. After the war, largely uncontrolled private construction activity led to the dense development of the outlying districts with monotonous housing developments. Rome has been the capital of Italy since 1946. The EEC was founded in Rome on March 25, 1957 with the Treaty of Rome.
A special attraction for pilgrims as well as tourists is the Papal States , with 0.44 km² the smallest state in the world. It lies on the right bank of the Tiber and is completely enclosed by the city of Rome. Vatican City has around 850 residents. Citizenship is usually linked to residence in the Vatican and a function in the Papal States (Fig. 4).
The border is on three sides by fortification walls from the 16./17. Century formed. Vatican City includes the Vatican, St. Peter’s Church, the Papal Gardens and St. Peter’s Square. It also includes several extraterritorial churches and buildings located on Italian territory in Rome, including the Church of San Giovanni in Laterano as well as the papal summer palace and the Villa Barberini in Castel Gandolfo in the Alban Hills near Rome.
The Vatican City has scientific institutions, a radio station, a post and telegraph office and a printing plant. It also has interests in several industrial companies and has significant real estate holdings. Tourism is important.
A separate train station connects the Vatican City with the rail network of the Italian state railways.
According to the constitution of 1929, Vatican City is an elective monarchy, the head of state is the Pope. He exercises his powers through the Roman Curia, which acts as the main administration of the whole Church. The Pope delegates most of the secular functions to the Cardinal Secretary of State. Diplomatic relations exist with 168 countries. Vatican City is not a UN member.