According to Countryaah, Uzbekistan houses a number of ancient agricultural centers such as Coresma (at the upper reaches of the Amú-Darya River), Maveranajr (between the Amú-Darya and Sir-Darya rivers) as well as the Fergana Valley. The first state formation around these centers took place in the 10th century BCE The population and language was Indo-European. From the 6th century BCE to the 6th century AD, these states were part of the Persian Empire under the Ahemenids, Alexander the Great, and the Kushan Empire.
The Turkish nomads defeated the females and incorporated most of Central Asia into their empire, the Turkish khanate (6-8th century). It was during this period that the Turkish speaking people began to come to Uzbekistan, where they mingled with the local population. In the middle of the 8th century the country was conquered by the Arabs and Islam spread rapidly – especially in the cities.
As the power of the Arab caliphs waned (9-13th century), an Islamic civilization developed based on highly developed irrigation agriculture and crafts. The major cities of Bukhara, Samarkand and Urguench developed into thriving trading centers for the caravans that followed the Silk Road from China to Byzans.
In 1219-21, Coresma State was invaded by the Tartars and completely destroyed. Coresma was handed over to Djenghi Khan’s eldest son, while Maverannajr and Fergana were handed his second son, Chagatai. The inhabitants of the country began to call themselves chagatais. The steppe areas became the abode of Turkish and Mongol tribes. In the second half of the 14th century, the chief of these tribes, Timur settled in Maverannajr and made Samarkand the capital of his kingdom. Later, Samarkand became the residence of Ulugbeg, grandson of Timur Lenk, khan and astronomer.
The Union of nomadic tribes who called themselves Uzbeks was formed in the 15th century in central Kazakhstan. In the second half of this century, the great Uzbek poet and thinker, Alisher Navoi, made his mark at the court of one of Timur’s descendants. Uzbek chief Mujamed Sheibani defeated Maverannajr in the early 16th century, and Uzbek immigrants now made names for the people of the country. After the state of Sheibani was disbanded, Uzbek khanas appeared in the region. In 1512, the khanate Jiva, whose military elite belonged to the Uzbek people, Kungrato was formed. Mujamed Amin was the chief of these, and in 1806 established the dynasty that ruled Jiva until 1920.
In the middle of the 16th century the khanate Bukhara was created. Its military elite belonged to the Uzbek people manguite. Their chief, Mujamed Rajim, founded in 1753 his dynasty, who also remained seated on the throne until 1920. Bukhara reached his heyday under Khan Nasrula (1826-60). In the early 19th century, the emirs of the Fergana and Ming dynasties created the khanate Kokand. These were theocratic feudal communities populated by Uzbek, Turkmen, Tajik, Kyrgyz and Karakal pack. The Khanates were constantly in mutual wars.
None of these state formation had fixed boundaries, or were able to control the allegiance of the regional chiefs. The Emirate of Jiva and Bukhara exercised a formal dominion over the Turkish tribes of the Karakum desert, living off the slave trade with Iran. Although the three Uzbek Khanates achieved a high degree of organization, they were not prepared to withstand the imminent European expansion. In Central Asia, Russia and Britain’s colonial interests clashed with the issue of access to the region’s cotton production.
In 1860, Russia began its offensive against the Khanates, but it was made more difficult by the geographical location of the states, the Jiva which was surrounded by desert. In 1867, the czar created the province of Turkestan with the center of Tashkent, which belonged to Kokand, which had been formally annexed in 1875. By the end of the century, the province included the regions of Samarkand, Sir-Daria and Fergana. On August 12, 1873, the emir of Jiva signed a peace treaty with Russia, and agreed to become a protectorate. He was followed the month after by the emir of Bukhara, who signed a similar agreement. The Russian invasion worsened the living conditions of the population and led to a series of rebellions such as Andizhan in 1898 and Central Asia in 1916.
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At the fall of Zarism in February 1917, a double power situation arose, with the Provisional Government of St. Petersburg sat with part of the power, and at the same time workers, peasant and soldier councils (soviets) were built. In the wake of the October Revolution, the Soviets in Tashkent assumed power in the region. In 1918, units of the Red Army prevented the establishment of an autonomous Islamic government in Kokand, as well as a rebellion against the Soviet power organized by the Union for Combating the Bolsheviks in Turkestan. In April 1920 the Red Army occupied Jiva, and in September entered Bukhara. In the spring, the Soviet power began to implement land reform, but military operations continued until mid-1922, when land reform had removed the political base of the rebels.